حقوق المرأة في العالم العربي
Sukurbanu (65) is living in Rupnagar slum since her childhood. She has fallen from the hanging toilet one week ago. Most often she badly suffered from water diseases because of poor hanging toilet. Her three daughters have to face long queue before they go to work. Life become miserable to her because of toilet crisis. GMB Akash, Panos Pictures for WSUP.
Isabela Pires Baptista, 33, lives on her own in a penthouse in one of Rioâs well-off neighbourhoods, Barra da Tijuca. She has a MBA in Environmental Law but works as a fine artist. âMy toilet means comfort to me. But I know what is behind it: water supply, sewerage, pollution of lakes and oceans... It could mean life and death, if I go deeper. The fact is that I do like to have a good shower, and for a Brazilian girl like me, it means at least 10 minutes of clean water being wasted. It's a privilege. I have a clean water supply, hot water, a comfortable toilet seat. But in my neighbourhood, sewage is thrown into the lakes and beaches, so I can feel the smell; sometimes the fish die without oxygen. I often see solid waste floating in Barraâs canals and lagoons. And loads of rubbish, making many parts of the beach inappropriate for swimming. Now that they built Barraâs emissary, sending untreated sewage into the ocean, the next step was to treat it before disposal. The facilities are under construction and the target is to have all these neighbourhoods connected to the sewerage system until 2015. But of course they won't make it when only 14% of the budget has been put in place so far. Eduardo Martino, Panos Pictures for WSUP
Keyla Realpe is 4 years old. She lives in Bolivar, Esmeraldas (Ecuador) in her grandmother's house along with her mother, two siblings, and her aunts, uncles and grandparents. There are 13 people living in the house and they have two bathrooms with no doors. There is a septic tank system for the toilets which was installed ten years ago. They have no running water in this town, just one well were they carry the water from. To wash their hands they use water from a bucket. Maria Cagua, Keyla's grandmother, built this bathroom herself and feels very proud of it. Keyla calls her grandmother Mamá María. Keyla loves her dolls, she wishes she could go to school already, she likes to dance and to dress up in many different clothes. Karla Gachet, Panos Pictures for WSUP.
Meseret at her home in Addis Ababa. Her husband was shot during the aftermath of the 2005 elections. Since she has been a widow for nine years now she is trying to live an cost-conscious live. Together with her two children, her two little sisters and her mother she shares a one bedroom government house. The house rent is seven Ethiopian Birr, which is close to a third of a dollar. Still, as a restaurant manager she finds it difficult to survive. Her shared toilet is far out of the compound. Too far, according to Meseret. That is why the family uses the little side yard next to the house. Though it is not a toilet, the entire family uses it for their defecation. After use, defation is covered by sand and flushed away with some water. Petterik Wiggers, Panos Pictures for WSUP.
"I have always defecated on the ground. As a woman, I know this is a shameful and undignified thing to do, but I had no choice. It’s what we’ve all done for years. It was really difficult at night, especially when it rained. I either used a bush or went in a bag. Last year, an NGO supported us to build a community toilet in Limonade. Now, I can use this during the day which is great. However, at night I am not able to use the toilet because it’s quite a distance from my house and I’m scared to walk alone. Shiho Fukada, Panos pictures for WSUP
Geeta who lives in Katra, Uttar Pradesh, walks almost six kilometres every day, in the early morning and late evening, to go to the toilet in local fields. In May 2014 two girls in her local area left home to visit a nearby field that they used as a toilet. They were found dead the next day. They had been raped and were hanging from a tree. Atul Loke, Panos Pictures for WSUP.
Eiko Aoki 61 washes her hands after toilet. The toilet booths at female bathroom of a department store near her home in Tokyo. The bathroom has spacious with soft lighting, WiFi access, 3D surround music, heated seat and washlet / electric toilet seats with water spray for washing anal and genital cleansing. Sound concept of this bathroom is world fantasy. Each individual room has a unique design and concept such as amazon, aurora, forest. Eiko, a house wife in Tokyo says "Since this department store is close to my home, I often come here for shopping. When I was a child, public toilet was not clean and smelled not good most of the time. But now every time I use a public toilet in Tokyo, its very clean and has washlet. I myself use toilet with washlet and heat seat in my home almost 25 years ago. Noriko Hayashi, Panos Pictures for WSUP.
Eunice is the Co-Founder of Kasarani Academy in Naivasha. Previously, the school only had two toilets which were used by 250 pupils. Tenants living nearby used the toilets as well and left them in a poor condition. Because of this, Eunice found that the children preferred to practice open defecation in the grounds around the school, which quickly became a public health issue. Eunice and her husband Paul have now invested in child-friendly toilets. These tiny toilets have prevented adults using them as they cannot fit through the doors. Frederic Coubert, Panos Pictures for WSUP.
Vanessa, 17, is a student who lives in Antananarivo. She says she worries when she is on her period at school.
"At home, I have a shower outside my house and I can keep clean but when I’m at school, I feel embarrassed during my periods as there is no space to change or wash. I worry that my sanitary napkin will leak if I keep it on for too long while I’m waiting to come back home to change it." Frederic Coubert, Panos Pictures for WSUP.
Luria, 12, is a Grade 7 pupil at Maguiguana Primary School in the Maxaquene Bairro of Maputo. Her parents live in a town in the countryside. Luria was sent to Maputo to live with her uncle so that she could attend school there.
"I try not to use the toilet at school. It’s really bad." James Oatway, Panos Pictures for WSUP.
Rural dweller Renee, an artist, left her former home in the densely populated suburbs of Sydney to live a quieter life in bush surrounds an hours north of the city. She has built a shed on 10 acres of land and also included an outside toilet/bathroom. She says she's not concerned about privacy as she's surrounded by bush and no one can see in. As she's away from the town water /sewage system her toilets and other wastes are flushed into septic holding tanks. Warren Clarke, Panos Pictures for WSUP
Pana Dumitra, 49, from Buzescu, lives as almost half of the Romanian population do in the country side. There is no running water neither sewage from the municipality. People have wells, they extract electrically the water which is used for kitchen and sometimes they also build inside toilets. Dumitra is also having a inside small toilet, but it's been used only by her nephews, when they pay a visit. She is using only the outside toilet, even in the winter time. Petrut Calinescu, Panos Pictures for WSUP.
Nombini has two Porta Potties, which are used by the 12 people who live in her home. When she first moved to Khayelitsha in 2005, she did not have a toilet so she had to go in the bush, across a main road.
"It was terrible in the bush, the cars hit you. When we were given a Porta Potty in 2009, it was much better than going in the bush. Flush toilets are first class compared to the Porta Potty though. My dream is to have a flush toilet." Eric Miller, assisted by Social Justice Coalition.
Ima, 47, is a public toilet attendant in Kumasi, Ghana’s second largest city. She lives in a rented room with her husband and four children aged 14-22. She is a very dedicated worker and relies on the income from her job to fund her children's education. She does not have a toilet at home. During the day, she uses the public toilet where she works, but at night she is forced to use plastic bags as it is not safe to walk long distances in the dark. Nyani Quarmyne, Panos Pictures for WSUP.
Mary is a writer who lives in New York City.
"Living with two housemates, it is important to schedule our bathroom time and take turns cleaning it. I used to live in Beijing, where I had to use a public bathroom as my apartment didn't have a private toilet. While it was safe and relatively clean, I used to hate putting my coat on just to go to bathroom in the middle of night during winter. That experience made me really appreciate the privacy and comfort of having a clean toilet at home": Shiho Fukada, Panos pictures for WSUP.