How coronavirus 'supercharged' economic inequality in the Middle East

by Ban Barkawi | @banbarkawi | Thomson Reuters Foundation
Thursday, 27 August 2020 01:00 GMT

An Iraqi man wearing a protective face mask and gloves gives a bottle of water to a homeless man, who sits in front of a closed shop during a curfew imposed to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), in Basra, Iraq April 2, 2020. REUTERS/Essam al-Sudani

Image Caption and Rights Information

COVID-19 is expected to push 45 million Arabs and North Africans into poverty, with 1.7 million at risk of losing their jobs

Coronavirus is changing the world in unprecedented ways. Subscribe here for a twice-weekly briefing on how this global crisis is affecting cities, technology, approaches to climate change, and the lives of vulnerable people.

By Ban Barkawi

AMMAN, Aug 20 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - The gap between the richest and the poorest in the Middle East and North Africa - the world's most unequal region - is widening due to the coronavirus, said an Oxfam report on Thursday.

Twenty-one of the Middle East's wealthiest magnates in countries like the United Arab Emirates and Egypt have seen their net worth increase by $10 billion since the start of the pandemic, according to the aid agency.

Yet COVID-19 is expected to push 45 million Arabs and North Africans into poverty and 1.7 million risk losing their jobs.

The pandemic has "supercharged" an economic collapse caused by years of conflict and placed the largest burden on the vulnerable.


Even before the coronavirus, 76% of the Middle East and North Africa's income belonged to just 10% of the population.

Inequality has deepened since anti-government uprisings swept the Arab World in 2010 and saw countries introduce austerity measures.

Weak social protections for workers and tax policies that favored corporations over working-class citizens also played a role, said the 32-page 'For a Decade of Hope Not Austerity' report.

In Tunisia for example, tax revenues contributed by corporations fell by 37% between 2010 and 2018 while household tax increased by 10% in the same period.


Coronavirus threatens the livelihood of 700,000 Middle Eastern women - around 40% of the 1.7 million jobs expected to be lost. That is despite women in the region only making up 20% of the workforce.    

Lockdowns may have spurred digital workarounds in some schools and workplaces but in countries like Iraq and Morocco where only about half of women have access to the Internet, many will be left behind.

The region's 16 million informal workers - many working on construction sites in Arab Gulf countries like Qatar - are especially vulnerable as they lack legal and social protections if the virus put them out of work.

Almost 14% of the world's migrant workers live in the Middle East, where the so-called kafala sponsorship system binds them to their employers and can lead to exploitation. 

In Gulf countries, where they have no guarantee of social security or pensions, the infection rate was highest among migrant workers, many who had already lost their jobs and were forced to use their savings to survive.

A man searches through a garbage bin in Sidon, southern Lebanon, June 30, 2020. Picture taken June 30, 2020. REUTERS/Ali Hashisho


While there is no quick-fix especially with ongoing civil wars and instability, governments will need to introduce policies that offer healthcare and education for all, raise the minimum wage, and improve taxation, Oxfam recommended.

In Lebanon, the United Nations has said a national solidarity fund is needed to help the country close its poverty gap in the wake of an economic crisis and a huge explosion that tore through Beirut on Aug. 4.

If Lebanon had introduced a 5% solidarity wealth tax last year it could have generated $3.7 billion to help rebuild infrastructure and protect people after the blast, Oxfam said.

Similarly across the region if countries like Jordan, Egypt and Morocco had implemented wealth taxes of 2% from 2010, they could have generated more than all International Monetary Fund lending in recent years and avoided austerity measures.

Related links:

Why is coronavirus causing rising hunger in middle-income countries?

U.S. super-rich found failing in pledge to donate most of wealth

'Tax us': World's super-rich call for wealth tax to fund coronavirus relief

(Reporting by Ban Barkawi @banbarkawi; Editing by Tom Finn. Please credit the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, that covers the lives of people around the world who struggle to live freely or fairly. Visit